India, one of the biggest democracies in the world. Today, we all are preparing for the 73rd Independence Day and the auspicious festival of Rakshabandhan. However, if we go back in time, exactly 72 years ago, today on 13th August 1947, what were the situations in India back then.
We are talking about an India, which was on the verge of getting independence after getting divided into two parts; Hindustan – A Hindu Majority Nation & Pakistan – A Muslim Majority Nation.
India had been under the dominance of British rule for more than 200 years. After years of revolt and slavery, British KIngdom finally gave away their rule over the Indian reigns. However, before leaving India, they decided to divide India into two nations. Then India was mainly populated with two religions, Hindus & Muslims. Hence, the last viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten decided to draw a line between the Muslim populated & Hindu Populated lands. As a result, the two nations were born. Hindustan – A Hindu Majority Nation & Pakistan – A Muslim Majority Nation.
People of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh religions were the ones who were most affected by the partition. Those people who used to live in peace and harmony with each other were becoming each other’s enemy. One one side the countries were on the verge of becoming Independent and on the other hand, there was the chaos of people trying to move from India to Pakistan and vice-versa.
On 13th August 1947, Millions of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs were travelling across the newly drawn borders to reside in their India & Pakistan. However, it is not as easy as it sounds. This is the biggest population displacements that have ever taken in history. Trains, Buses, Bullock Carts, trucks, filled with people were crossing the invisible borders to send people of the Muslim religion to Pakistan and bringing Hindus from Pakistan’s land to India. People of moving away, leaving their land behind, in search of a secure and happy future.
These are some of the major highlights of the events and incidents, that were marking a black day in the history of the two nations:
- Muslim women, who were up till now were part of India, were in a hurry to board trains at New Delhi station, to join the newly formed Pakistan. People were travelling with a heavy heart, leaving their ancestorial homes behind, in search of establishing a secure future for their children. Some could not even get time to take their belongings with them.
- Hindus & Sikhs, who were living in the lands, which we now know as Pakistan, were being sent across the border to become part of India. People left their properties, lands, shops behind, to cross borders before independence.
- Bogies and train coaches rushed from one country to another, filled with dead bodies of people, who lost their lives in the riots, that erupted soon after the announcement of partition. The trains, stations and platforms were all red with the blood of the deceased.
- Muslims and Hindus, who lived in harmony with each other, fought for freedom together up till now, were now becoming arch enemies. Women of each religion were being rapped, men being murdered and children being orphaned.
- World’s largest displacement involved millions of people who moved across the border in just 50 to 60 days. It was a population displacement, that the world has never witnessed ever before.
- The first census after Independence, that took place in 1951, suggested that 72.26 lakh Muslims moved from India to Pakistan and 72.49 Hindus and Sikhs moved from Pakistan to India as a result of Partition. The biggest partition affected more than 1.45 crore people.
Apart from the population displacements, the other major events that took place in India were:
- India, which was to become independent 2 days later, decided to establish friendly relations with the Soviet Union. The relation went to give India a lot of strength in future.
- Maharani Kanchanprava Devi who was the queen of Tripura decided to merge her kingdom with Indian Union. The consent papers were signed for the merger agreement. Earlier, the Tripura Kingdom was a princely state & ruled by the queen.
- Before Independence, India was ruled by Britishers who had a federal court. However, after Independence, India was to have its own court of Justice. Hence, Sir Harilal Jekisundas Kania, who was the Chief Justice of British India’s Federal Court, was appointed as India’s first Chief Justice.
- Hamidullah Khan, the Nawab of Bhopal, was not yet ready to annex his dynasty with the Union of India. He demanded to remain independent or form a union of their own.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad also issued a declaration announcing that his state will resume independent and will not form of Union of India after the transfer of Powers.
- Muslims who were going to be part of the newly formed Pakistan were celebrating because the country was to receive independence the very next day, 14th August 1947.
A study of the above points is a simple suggestion that the two nations have been strategically divided by the British rule to separate the biggest democracy in the world. A country, which otherwise would have been a superpower, was divided in terms of land, population and resources, left to fight for centuries to come, to fight for small parts of the land.
India and Pakistan, the two nations were a single land, just 73 years ago. The ancestors of the current population of the two countries used to live in harmony, celebrate festivals together and fought for freedom together. However, today, the citizens of the two nations have been fed with lots of hatred for each other by the politicians and media houses for their own benefits.
This article is proof that the Independence that we celebrate today, it yet another slavery of hatred created by Britishers due to partition.